Greengarden was the handsome home of Maj. Dolly Richards, who commanded one of the two battalions of Mosby’s guerilla Rangers by 1864. On June 21st, 1863 Union Maj. Gen. John Buford mounted a knoll from which he could see Gen. J.E.B. Stuart’s troopers forming a new line at Vineyard Hill on the eastern outskirts of Upperville. Buford moved his brigades for another mile and then turned the column south on Greengarden Road. This led him past Greengarden Farm to Kincheloe’s Mill on Panther Skin Creek. When the column reached the mill, Robertson’s Confederates on the south side of the creek raised the cry that they were being outflanked. Some panicked and began making for the rear, but the Federals soon discovered that the raging stream was not fordable. Thwarted in yet another effort to join Brig. Gen. David McMurtrie Gregg and Gen. Stuart’s engagement, Buford bore to the west along Kincheloe’s Mill Road. After the battle in Upperville, Greengarden Farm served as a field hospital. The Citizens Committee for Historic Cavalry Battles recognizes the farm as a historic site.
Greengarden was a "safe house"a hiding place and billet"for the Rangers. Here, on the frigid night of Saturday, February 18, 1865, Federal cavalry surrounded the house and forced Richards and several other Rangers to dive beneath a first floor closet’s floorboards, a pre-arranged hiding place. Richards lost a new uniform, but escaped to lead a brutal counterattack against the Union force at Mount Carmel Church in Clarke County, 5 miles west.